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Vaccines
Calling The Shots

Vaccines (2014) - 60 minutes
Vaccines at Amazon.com

Diseases that were largely eradicated in the United States a generation ago - including whooping cough, measles, mumps - are returning, in part because nervous parents are skipping their children's shots. Vaccines - Calling the Shots, a new NOVA special, takes viewers around the world to track epidemics, explore the science behind vaccinations, and shed light on the risks of opting out.

The vast majority of Americans vaccinate their children, and most do it on the recommended schedule. Yet many people have questions about the safety of vaccines, and in some communities, vaccination rates have fallen below the level needed to maintain "herd immunity" - allowing outbreaks to take hold and spread. This film draws on the latest, best available evidence to help parents find the answers.

Highlighting real cases and placing them in historical context, Vaccines - Calling the Shots traces outbreaks of communicable diseases and demonstrates just how fast they can spread - and how many people can fall sick - when a community's immunity barrier falls.

11-30-18 Around the world, reported measles cases jumped 31 percent in 2017
Political unrest and refusal to vaccinate is driving the disease’s surge, health experts say. From 2016 to 2017, the number of reported cases in the region jumped 6,358 percent, to 775, largely fueled by an ongoing outbreak in Venezuela that has since infected thousands more. Along with a spike in measles in Europe, the Venezuela outbreak contributed to a 31 percent worldwide increase in reports of the highly contagious disease in 2017, according to researchers from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Both the Americas and the European regions have the resources to stop measles, and it’s not happening,” says William Moss, an infectious disease epidemiologist at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health who was not involved with the report. The apparent jump comes after years of steady progress toward reducing the spread of the disease. Even taking the recent rise into account, reported measles cases from 2000 to 2017 have dropped 80 percent worldwide — from 853,479 to 173,330 — as have estimated deaths from the disease, researchers say in the Nov. 30 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Measles vaccination prevented an estimated 21.1 million deaths over that time, the report says, though it continues to be a leading cause of vaccine-preventable infant deaths globally. “Global efforts to eliminate measles continue to make progress,” says Rebecca Martin, director of CDC’s Center for Global Health in Atlanta. “Despite these gains, multiple regions have experienced large measles outbreaks in 2017, primarily due to low vaccination coverage nationally or in geographic pockets, illustrating how fragile gains in disease elimination can be.”

11-19-18 Anti-vaccine community behind North Carolina chickenpox outbreak
A North Carolina school with a large anti-vaccine community is at the heart of the state's largest chickenpox outbreak in decades, officials say. On Friday 36 students at Asheville Waldorf School were diagnosed with the disease, the Asheville Citizen-Times newspaper reported. The school has one of the state's highest rates of religious exemption, allowing students to skip vaccination. US health officials say vaccinating is far safer than getting chickenpox. "This is the biggest chickenpox outbreak state health officials are aware of since the vaccine became available," a North Carolina Department of Health spokesman told the BBC in an emailed statement. Out of the Waldorf School's 152 students, 110 have not received the vaccine for the varicella virus, known to most as chickenpox, the Citizen-Times found. And 67.9% of the school's kindergarten students had religious immunisation exemptions on file in the 2017-2018 school year, according to state data. The primary school is fully co-operating with local health officials and is compliant with all North Carolina laws, a spokesperson for the school told the BBC. "We find that our parents are highly motivated to choose exactly what they want for their children. We, as a school, do not discriminate based on a child's medical history or medical condition." Buncombe County, home to the city of Asheville, with a population of over 250,000, has the highest rate of religious-based immunisation exemptions in the state. Local health officials are closely monitoring the situation, according to the county's health department. "We want to be clear: vaccination is the best protection from chickenpox," County Medical Director Dr Jennifer Mullendore said in a statement. "When we see high numbers of unimmunised children and adults, we know that an illness like chickenpox can spread easily throughout the community- into our playgrounds, grocery stores, and sports teams." North Carolina law requires certain immunisations, including chickenpox, measles and mumps for kindergarteners, but the state allows for medical and religious exemptions. (Webmaster's comment: THIS IS WHAT YOU GET WHEN RELIGIOUS IGNORANCE DECIDES. SICK CHILDREN.)

10-26-18 Fewer kids vaccinated
The percentage of American children ages 2 and under who haven’t received any vaccinations has quadrupled over the past 17 years, a worrying sign of the “anti-vax” movement’s success. In 2017, 1.3 percent of kids born in 2015 had received none of the recommended vaccines, according to a new report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, up from 0.9 percent for those born in 2011. In 2001, only 0.3 percent of children ages 19 to 35 months were totally unvaccinated. The agency notes “that most children are still routinely vaccinated” and that immunization rates haven’t changed nationally. But if kids born in 2016 were vaccinated at the same rate as those born the previous year, that means there are now some 100,000 children nationwide who aren’t inoculated against preventable diseases such as measles, whooping cough, and hepatitis B. “This is something we’re definitely concerned about,” Amanda Cohn, the CDC’s senior adviser for vaccines, tells The Washington Post.

10-26-18 What the approval of the new flu drug Xofluza means for you
A new single-dose treatment gives doctors a novel way to fight influenza infections. There’s a new flu drug on the shelf, the first in 20 years to get a thumbs-up from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. On October 24, the agency approved the use of the new antiviral drug, called baloxavir marboxil and sold under the brand name Xofluza. The drug, already available in Japan, works differently to kill the influenza virus from the other main class of flu antivirals, which includes the drug Tamiflu. Antiviral drugs can help alleviate symptoms and shorten the flu’s duration, although flu vaccination remains the best way to prevent illness and death caused by the virus. “Prevention is better than treatment in all things and that’s absolutely true for flu,” says infectious disease physician Andrew Pavia of the University of Utah School of Medicine in Salt Lake City. “So the first message is: Get your flu shot.” Many people aren’t getting that message: The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports October 25 that less than 40 percent of adults got a flu shot last year, the lowest amount in at least eight seasons. The 2017–2018 season in the United States was particularly deadly; about 80,000 people died of flu or related complications (SN Online: 9/27/18). The recent bad flu season highlights the importance of having ways to treat the flu, in addition to preventing it. The approval of the new drug is “kind of a big deal in terms of our overall arsenal against flu,” Pavia says.

10-26-18 A mysterious polio-like disease
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is warning the public about a surge of cases of a rare and mysterious polio-like disease that mostly affects children and can result in paralysis. The agency said last week that it had confirmed 62 cases of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) across 22 states since the start of the year, reports CBSNews.com. More than 90 percent of those were in children, with the average sufferer being 4 years old. Another 65 possible cases are under investigation. Health officials have been closely monitoring the disease since 2014. Every year since then, normally in late summer, there has been a spike in cases—a pattern that has left researchers baffled. Scientists are still uncertain how AFM, which affects the nervous system, is transmitted. Symptoms include weakened muscles and reflexes, and in some cases paralysis; one child with the disorder died in 2017. Nancy Messonnier, a top official at the CDC, emphasized that the disease was still extremely rare. But she said the agency wanted to raise awareness of the condition and encourage parents to seek immediate medical care if their kids showed any weakness or loss of muscle tone in their limbs.

10-17-18 Chinese firm fined $1.3bn for illegal production of rabies vaccine
A Chinese vaccination firm has been fined $1.3bn (£988m) after it was found to have illegally produced the human rabies vaccine. Changchun Changsheng had blended different batches of vaccine fluid and used expired fluid to produce some of the batches, according to state news agency Xinhua. The company also falsified production data for the vaccine. This is not the first major vaccine scandal to hit China. Changchun Changsheng's pharmaceutical production licence has also been revoked and its illegally produced vaccines have been confiscated. Some of the company's executives may also face criminal charges. "This is the most stringent administrative penalty on record," an official at the China Food and Drug Administration told financial news website Caixin. "The company must be held responsible for its intentional fraud."

9-27-18 The CDC says 80,000 people died from the flu last year
That makes the 2017–2018 flu season one of the deadliest in the United States. In the past year, the flu killed an estimated 80,000 Americans — the country’s highest death toll from flu and related complications in more than a decade, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The 2017–2018 flu season has been classified as one of “high severity” (SN: 7/7/18, p. 16), with some 900,000 people hospitalized with flu symptoms — the highest hospitalization rate since the 2005–2006 season. A record 180 children died, as of August. Only the 2009 flu pandemic had more child deaths, with 358. The high total death toll was “not surprising,” CDC spokesperson Kristen Nordlund says, given that the main virus circulating “was influenza A H3N2, and we know that virus tends to be severe for young children and the elderly.” U.S. health officials are now gearing up for a new flu season. “It is not possible to predict what this flu season will be like,” Nordlund says.

9-27-18 In China, a deadly strain of bird flu now easily infects ducks
A vaccine that protects chickens from the virus works in ducks, too. Some ducks in China now carry a deadly strain of bird flu. Highly pathogenic versions of H7N9 — a bird flu strain that’s proven particularly deadly to people — and H7N2 viruses have turned up in ducks in the Fujian province. These viruses replicate easily in the ducks and can kill them, researchers report September 27 in Cell Host & Microbe. The discovery is worrisome because the virus made the jump to ducks just ahead of efforts to eliminate H7N9 by vaccinating chickens. Since H7N9 began sickening people in 2013, a total of 1,625 people have contracted the bird flu strain and 623 have died. Most of those infected had been in contact with chickens (SN Online: 3/11/15). Initially the virus killed about a third of people who caught it. But in 2016, the virus mutated to become even deadlier in both poultry and people, killing about half of people it infected. A vaccine against the virus protects chickens, and consequently people, the new study found. No human cases of H7N9 have been reported since October 2017. But ducks weren’t vaccinated because the original H7N9 virus didn’t infect them easily. Now, they should be to prevent the deadlier virus strains from spreading to other poultry, wild birds and to people, the researchers write.

9-26-18 A new vaccine raises hopes of someday curbing the tuberculosis epidemic
Two doses cut the disease rate in half for people with a latent TB infection. A new tuberculosis vaccine shows promise in preventing the bacteria from causing disease in people who are infected, but aren’t sick. If approved, it could help control the spread of a disease considered one of the world’s top killers, responsible for 1.6 million deaths in 2017, according to the World Health Organization. In a clinical trial, the new vaccine halved the number of people who developed active TB from latent infections of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, compared with those who received a placebo. Of 1,623 participants treated with two doses of the vaccine and followed for just over two years, 10 went on to develop tuberculosis, an incidence of 0.3 cases per 100 people per year. That’s compared with 22 participants out of 1,660 who received two placebo shots, or 0.6 cases per 100 people per year. The results were reported online September 25 in the New England Journal of Medicine, a day before the United Nations General Assembly’s first high-level meeting on ending tuberculosis. “The results are extremely encouraging,” says Richard Chaisson, an infectious disease physician and director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Tuberculosis Research, who was not involved in the research. “This is the first study of new tuberculosis vaccines that has had such dramatic results.”

8-29-18 Ebola outbreak has killed 75 in the Democratic Republic of Congo
There has been an uptick in deaths caused by the Ebola virus in the Democratic Republic of Congo, bringing the death count for the current outbreak up to 75. THERE has been a sudden uptick in deaths caused by the Ebola virus in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, bringing the number of people killed in the current outbreak up to 75. In an update on 26 August, the World Health Organization reported 111 cases of the haemorrhagic fever, which can cause vomiting, diarrhoea and, in some cases, internal bleeding. Of these, 83 are confirmed cases and 28 are probable. That is more than double the numbers in a previous outbreak in the western part of the DRC that was declared over in June 2018. So far, 13 cases have been reported among health workers, including one death. Of the deaths so far, 47 are confirmed to be due to Ebola, and 28 are deemed probable. The WHO response to the outbreak has been complicated by the fact that its epicentre, North Kivu Province, is ensnared in conflict and contains armed militias. It is also one of the country’s most populated regions and shares a border with Rwanda and Uganda, making it more urgent to contain the outbreak. Five experimental therapies have been approved for use in the region, in an attempt to halt Ebola’s spread and improve survival rates for those who catch it. These include an antibody known as mAb114, which was isolated from a woman who survived a 1995 Ebola outbreak and is currently being tested in clinical trials. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the WHO director general, celebrated the first two Congolese patients to receive the antibody and recover, calling it “a global first, and a ray of hope for people with the disease”.

8-27-18 Yemen cholera epidemic 'controlled' by computer predictions
Cholera cases in Yemen have been slashed by a new system that predicts where outbreaks will occur. Last year, there were more than 50,000 new cases in just one week - this year, the numbers plummeted to about 2,500. The system has enabled aid workers to focus efforts on prevention several weeks in advance of an outbreak - by monitoring rainfall. It comes as the UN says it is concerned about a possible "third wave" of the epidemic. The deployment of the technology has been coordinated by the UK's Department for International Development. Prof Charlotte Watts, the department's chief scientific adviser, said that the system had helped aid workers bring a rampant epidemic under control. "We have thousands of people around the world that died from cholera each year," he said. "And I think this approach could really help put a dent into that figure. "What this technology enables us to do is really home in to where we're going to get new outbreaks, and respond really effectively." Last year, there were a million cases of the waterborne disease in Yemen. More than 2,000 people died and many of them were children. It was the largest and fastest-spreading epidemic on record - and its rapid spread was caused by the destruction of sewerage and sanitation systems during the country's civil war. Although cases have reduced dramatically in 2018, the UN says it is concerned about a possible "third wave" of the epidemic. The UK's overseas aid department has worked with the Met Office to develop a system that predicts where cholera will occur four weeks ahead of time.

8-24-18 Russia trolls 'spreading vaccination misinformation' to create discord
Social media bots and Russian trolls have been spreading disinformation about vaccines on Twitter to create social discord and distribute malware, US researchers say. Troll accounts that had attempted to influence the US election had also been tweeting about vaccines, a study says. Many posted both pro- and anti-vaccination messages to create "false equivalency", the study found. It examined thousands of tweets sent between 2014 and 2017. Vaccination was being used by trolls and sophisticated bots as a "wedge issue", said Mark Dredze from Johns Hopkins University. "By playing both sides, they erode public trust in vaccination, exposing us all to the risk of infectious diseases," he said. Earlier this month, the World Health Organization (WHO) said cases of measles in Europe had hit a record high, with experts blaming this surge in infections on a drop in the number of people being vaccinated. In the US, the number of children being exempted from immunisation for religious or philosophical reasons is also rising, research published in June found. While a majority of Americans believed vaccines were safe and effective, looking at Twitter gave a different impression and suggested that there was a lot of debate about the issue, the disinformation study, which was published in the American Journal of Public Health, said. "A significant portion of the online discourse about vaccines may be generated by malicious actors with a range of hidden agendas," said David Broniatowski from George Washington University. The researchers reviewed more than 250 tweets about vaccination from accounts linked to the St Petersburg-based Internet Research Agency (IRA). In February the agency was named in a US indictment over alleged election meddling.

8-22-18 Record measles outbreak in Europe reaches 41,000 cases
The failure of parents to vaccinate their children has contributed to the biggest surge in measles cases Europe has seen in a decade, included 37 deaths. THE failure of parents to vaccinate their children has contributed to the biggest surge in measles cases Europe has seen in a decade, according to the World Health Organization. Across the 53 countries in the region, there have been at least 37 deaths and more than 41,000 cases in the first half of this year, already nearly twice the 23,927 cases recorded in the whole of 2016. More than half this year’s cases have been in Ukraine, where measles vaccination coverage has been plummeting over the past decade. In 2016, vaccination rates dropped to 50 per cent. The WHO warns that as soon as fewer than 95 per cent of eligible children receive vaccination, measles can spread rapidly. England has seen 807 cases this year, 281 of them in London. Before vaccination began in 1968, the UK reported roughly half a million cases a year.

8-20-18 Measles cases hit record high in Europe
Cases of measles in Europe have hit a record high, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). More than 41,000 people have been infected in the first six months of 2018, leading to 37 deaths. Last year there were 23,927 cases and the year before 5,273. Experts blame this surge in infections on a drop in the number of people being vaccinated. In England, there have been 807 cases so far this year. The WHO is calling on European countries to take action. Public Health England say the outbreaks in England are largely due to people who have travelled to areas of mainland Europe that have had outbreaks. Measles is highly infectious and spreads by droplets in coughs and sneezes. The infection lasts seven to 10 days. But while most people recover completely, it can cause some serious complications.

7-27-18 Useless vaccines
Chinese parents were outraged this week at the discovery that hundreds of thousands of doses of rabies and diphtheria and tetanus vaccines administered to their children were ineffective. An editorial in the state-run Global Times said the crisis was “flooding the internet with public anger and panic,” and it called on the government to step up regulation of the pharmaceutical industry. Vaccine maker Changchun Changsheng Biotechnology has been fined $500,000, and its management has apologized, saying it feels “very ashamed.” There have been no reports of harm from the faulty vaccines, but the revelation is likely to undermine authorities’ attempts to rebuild public trust in Chinese food and medicine after a series of scandals, including the tainted infant formula that sickened 300,000 babies in 2008.

7-24-18 HPV vaccine to be offered to all children in England, not just girls
Following similar decisions in Scotland and Wales, boys in England will now be offered the HPV vaccine, which protects against several types of cancer. Boys in England are to be offered the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, 10 years after it was introduced for girls. The decision follows a recommendation from the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) last week, which stated that a gender-neutral programme to protect against the sexually transmitted virus would be cost-effective. The recommendation has already prompted the Scottish and Welsh governments to decide to extend vaccinations to boys. “Any vaccination programme must be firmly grounded in evidence to ensure that we can get the best outcomes for patients, but as a father to a son, I understand the relief that this will bring to parents,” says public health minister Steve Brine. The HPV vaccination is currently offered to girls aged 12 to 13 at secondary school, and is also available free on the NHS up until their 18th birthday. But the virus doesn’t only cause cervical and vaginal tumours – it can also cause penis, anus, mouth and throat cancer, as well as genital warts. Extending the vaccination to boys will help prevent such diseases, and may mean that more gay men get protection from the virus at a younger age. Wider use of the vaccine should also further reduce cervical cancer cases in women, through herd immunity. The girls’ programme has already reduced the prevalence of the two main cancer-causing types of HPV virus by 80 per cent, according to data from Public Health England. “Almost all women under 25 have had the HPV vaccine and we’re confident that we will see a similarly high uptake in boys,” says Mary Ramsay, head of immunisations at Public Health England.

7-23-18 Ebola: How a killer disease was stopped in its tracks
One of the world's deadliest viruses, Ebola kills up to half of those it infects. But despite appearing to have all the hallmarks of a potential epidemic, the latest outbreak developed in a very different way. It was the ninth Ebola outbreak to hit the Democratic Republic of Congo in a decade, killing 29 people and leaving at least 60 children orphaned. While one death is too many, the West Africa epidemic of 2014-16 claimed more than 11,000 lives and it is hoped that later this week the most recent outbreak will be declared officially over by the World Health Organization. The relatively small number of deaths follows the use of an experimental vaccine, which may have saved hundreds, or even thousands of lives. Although the outbreak began in a remote area, there was a real danger that large numbers could be infected. It appeared close to neighbouring Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo - a vast area with a great ebb and flow of people and a fragile health system. It is also an area linked by river and road to the capital Kinshasa - home to 10 million people. The vaccine used, known as rVSV-ZEBOV was already in development during the 2014-16 epidemic. But by the time its effectiveness had been proven, the outbreak was already waning. When the virus returned in 2018, it could be quickly deployed, once the DRC government had approved its experimental use. This vaccine is designed for use against the Zaire strain of Ebola, which caused both this outbreak and the previous one. Scientists and health workers set to work tracking all potential transmissions since the first case had been reported. Front-line health workers, people in contact with confirmed Ebola cases, and their contacts all needed to be given the vaccine.

7-23-18 Chinese Premier Li Keqiang calls for crackdown on vaccine industry
Authorities in China have ordered an investigation into a vaccination scandal as panic grows over product safety. Last week vaccine maker Changsheng Biotechnology Co was found to have falsified production data for its rabies vaccine. The firm has been ordered to halt production and recall rabies vaccines. There has been no evidence of harm from the vaccine, but the scandal has sparked a huge outcry in China. Changsheng, which suspended trading in its shares for part of Monday, saw their value drop by 10% on the day. The shares have slumped 47% since mid-July, when news of the scandal first broke. On Sunday, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang urged severe punishment for the people involved, saying the incident had "crossed a moral line". "We will resolutely crack down on illegal and criminal acts that endanger the safety of peoples' lives, resolutely punish lawbreakers according to the law, and resolutely and severely criticise dereliction of duty in supervision," he said in a statement posted on a government website. Changsheng has apologised, saying that it was "guilty and embarrassed" and would co-operate with drug regulators to carry out a comprehensive internal investigation. On 15 July, China's State Drug Administration (SDA) announced that Changchun Changsheng had falsified production data during the production of its freeze-dried human rabies vaccine. According to a report by Xinhua, an official said the company had "fabricated production records and product inspection records", as well as "arbitrarily changed process parameters and equipment" during production. The China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) said the rabies vaccine had been recalled and that the company would be put under investigation.

5-21-18 Ebola vaccinations begin in Congo
On May 21, nurses began vaccinating people in Mbandaka, the city that became the site of the first urban cases in Congo’s Ebola outbreak last week, as well as in Bikoro, the rural epicenter of the outbreak. Emergency teams responding to the ongoing Ebola outbreak in Congo began on May 21 inoculating those most at risk of contracting the virus: health workers and people who have come into contact with Ebola victims. It’s the first real-world test for an experimental vaccine, rVSV-ZEBOV. In field trials in Guinea and Sierra Leone in 2015, this vaccine effectively protected people from Zaire ebolavirus — the same type of Ebola now circulating in Congo. In the latest outbreak, 51 people have developed cases of hemorrhagic fever consistent with Ebola, and 27 have died. The outbreak is centered in the rural Bikoro region but nearly a handful of cases have been reported in the city of Mbandaka. Using a “ring vaccination” strategy, health care workers are offering shots not just to the people who’ve had contact with Ebola victims, but also to a second ring of people who’ve had contact with the first group. In that way, the World Health Organization and its partners hope to disrupt the chain of transmission. Merck, the company that makes the vaccine, has donated 8,640 doses to the emergency response effort. That’s more than enough for 50 rings of 150 people. Another 8,000 doses are expected to become available soon, according to the WHO.

5-21-18 Ebola outbreak: Experimental vaccinations begin in DR Congo
Health workers in the Democratic Republic of Congo have begun an immunisation campaign in an attempt to halt the spread of an outbreak of the deadly Ebola virus. The experimental vaccine proved effective when used in limited trials during the epidemic which struck West Africa in 2014-16. At least 26 people are believed to have died in the current outbreak. Health workers were among the first to receive the vaccine on Monday. It is an infectious illness that causes internal bleeding and often proves fatal. It can spread rapidly through contact with small amounts of bodily fluid, and its early flu-like symptoms are not always obvious. More than 11,300 people died in the earlier outbreak in 2014-16. At least 45 cases of Ebola have been reported, including three health workers, since the outbreak began earlier this month. The virus has already spread from rural areas to the north-western city of Mbandaka, a major transport hub on the River Congo, where at least four cases have been confirmed. This has sparked fears that the outbreak could reach the capital, Kinshasa, as well as neighbouring countries. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) has said it has "strong reason to believe that the outbreak can be brought under control". At an emergency meeting, on Friday WHO experts said that "the conditions for a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) have not currently been met". The vaccine, made by pharmaceutical firm Merck, is not yet licensed, but was effective in limited trials during the West Africa outbreak. Dr Michel Yao, from the WHO, told the BBC that the vaccine had been tested in Guinea and that "almost all of the people who were vaccinated could not get the disease".

5-15-18 We may finally be able to beat the common cold with a new drug
An experimental drug stops common cold viruses from building their protective outer armour, preventing them from replicating and spreading. At last, an experimental drug has shown promise in beating common cold viruses, raising hopes of an effective treatment against rhinoviruses and other pathogens. When tested on human cells in a dish, the drug was found to block several strains of cold virus from replicating, without having any effect on the cells. The drug works by suppressing a human enzyme that cold viruses use to construct their capsids – the armoured outer shell of a virus. Without this protein shield, a virus’s genetic material is exposed and vulnerable. There are hundreds of variants of the rhinovirus, so attempts to develop vaccines against the common cold have so far failed. Most current cold treatments do no more than alleviate symptoms such as a runny nose, sore throat, and fever. But all strains of rhinovirus use the same enzyme to make copies of themselves, suggesting that this drug may be able to treat them all. However, many more tests of the drug are required first, not only to establish that it works in the human body, but also that it isn’t toxic. “A drug like this could be extremely beneficial if given early in infection, and we are working on making a version that could be inhaled, so that it gets to the lungs quickly,” says Ed Tate, at Imperial College London.

5-9-18 Hope for herpes vaccine after it wipes out virus in monkeys
Animal trials have proved successful in preventing and treating genital herpes in guinea pigs and monkeys, giving hope that the vaccine will move into human trials within the year. We may be a step closer to getting rid of genital herpes. Two vaccines are about to progress to clinical trials after proving to be safe and effective in guinea pigs and monkeys. Genital herpes is a sexually-transmitted infection that affects more than one in six people aged 14 to 49 in the US. It is usually caused by a strain of the herpes simplex virus, called HSV-2, which burrows into the skin and produces painful sores. The virus then permanently lodges in nerve cells and causes periodic flare-ups. Previous efforts to develop a herpes vaccine have failed. One of the most promising contenders – a vaccine called GEN-003 – was abandoned in September after underperforming in clinical trials. Part of the problem is that preclinical research is usually done in mice, which are not good models for human herpes, says Konstantin Kousoulas at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge. That is why his team has tested a new vaccine using guinea pig and monkey models. The vaccine is an engineered version of herpes simplex virus that helps train the immune system to fight the real thing. The part that normally allows the virus to enter nerve cells has been removed so that it cannot permanently lodge in the body. A recent guinea pig study found that the vaccine provided complete protection against genital herpes. None of the nine vaccinated animals developed symptoms of the disease after they were exposed to a highly-infectious strain of herpes simplex virus.

5-2-18 The first smallpox treatment is one step closer to FDA approval
The drug prevents the variola virus from infecting other cells. As bioterrorism fears grow, the first treatment for smallpox is nearing approval. Called tecovirimat, the drug stops the variola virus, which causes smallpox, from sending out copies of itself and infecting other cells. “If the virus gets ahead of your immune system, you get sick,” says Dennis Hruby, the chief scientific officer of pharmaceutical company SIGA Technologies, which took part in developing the drug. “If you can slow the virus down, your immune system will get ahead.” An advisory committee to the U.S. Federal Drug Administration unanimously recommended approval of tecovirimat, or TPOXX, on May 1. The FDA is expected to make its decision this summer. Unchecked, smallpox kills about 30 percent of people infected and leaves survivors with disfiguring pox scars. Between 300 million and 500 million people died of smallpox in the 20th century before health officials declared the disease eradicated in 1980 after a worldwide vaccination campaign. For research purposes, samples of the virus remain in two locations — one in the United States, the other in Russia. (Webmaster's comment: Nonsense! The United States and Russia are keeping the virus because they might want to use it as biological blackmail or in an attack against some country they don't agree with!)

4-11-18 Ovarian cancer vaccine improves women’s survival rates
A personalised cancer vaccine that trains the immune system to attack tumours has had encouraging results in women with ovarian cancer. A personalised cancer vaccine that trains the immune system to attack tumours has had encouraging results in women with ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women – around 7,300 women in the UK are diagnosed with it each year. The disease often isn’t recognised until it has already spread, and even after successful treatment, there is a high risk of the cancer returning. Only half of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer survive for five years or more. Cancer vaccines have been showing promise in clinical trials, but few worldwide have made it into the clinic for routine use. Many of these vaccines are designed to train immune cells to recognise particular molecules that are often present in cancer cells, but this can fail because tumours vary between different people. To get around this problem, Lana Kandalaft from the University of Lausanne, Switzerland and her team have created personalised vaccines that are tailored to each individual tumour. To do this, they take samples from a woman’s tumour and kill the cells with acid, which exposes molecules that are normally hidden. These dead cells are then mixed with immune cells from the woman’s blood, and grown in the lab for a few days before being injected back into her.

4-10-18 50 years on, vaccines have eliminated measles from the Americas
Excerpt from the April 13, 1968 issue of Science News. Mexico takes vaccine to hinterland: The campaign to eradicate measles in Mexico is going into the hinterland areas. Mobile brigades will use live virus vaccine produced in laboratories of the Republic’s Department of Health. Measles kills 10,000 Mexican children a year. — Science News, April 13, 1968. Update: The last measles case to originate in Mexico occurred in 1995. In 2016, the Pan American Health Organization declared that the Americas were measles-free, largely because of far-reaching vaccination campaigns. That year, 98 percent of Mexicans and 92 percent of Americans received at least one dose of vaccine, the World Health Organization and UNICEF estimate. Eliminating infections doesn’t mean a virus can’t be reintroduced. International travelers can bring measles in from other places. A 2017 outbreak in Minnesota saw 79 cases confirmed, many in a community with low vaccination rates, though the outbreak’s source was never identified.

3-6-18 Australia’s cervical cancer vaccine might eradicate the disease
A national school-based vaccination program has seen the number of young women with human papillomavirus (HPV) infections fall from 22.7 to 1.5 per cent. Australia is on track to become the first country to practically eradicate cervical cancer. A national school-based vaccination program has seen a sharp decline in human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, which cause over 99 per cent of cervical cancer cases. Since 2007, all girls aged 12 or 13 in Australia have been offered a free HPV vaccination. A decade later, the proportion of 18- to 24-year-old women with HPV has fallen from 22.7 to 1.5 per cent. This means the number of Australian women diagnosed annually with cervical cancer should drop from 3000 to just a few by the year 2050, says study author Suzanne Garland at the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Melbourne. Only 53 per cent of women have received the full three doses of the vaccine, but this still provides herd protection, says Garland. “Vaccinated women do not acquire HPV from, or infect, unvaccinated men and these men in turn do not transmit the virus to future unvaccinated female partners,” she says. This herd effect has been further bolstered by the extension of the vaccination program to all boys aged 12 to 13 since 2013. The original vaccine protected against four HPV strains that cause 70 per cent of cervical cancer. The latest version – which was rolled out in Australia in January – protects against nine HPV strains that cause 90 per cent of cases. (Webmaster's comment: This vaccination program would never work in America because of the ignorance and misbeliefs of the American people.)

3-1-18 Teens skipping HPV vaccine
Most American teenagers aren’t getting the HPV vaccine, even though it can protect them from several forms of cancer, reports NPR.org. Human papillomavirus is a group of more than 150 related viruses, some of which can persist in the body and cause cancers of the cervix, vagina, penis, anus, or throat. In order to protect against these diseases, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all children receive at least two doses of the HPV vaccine between the ages of 11 and 13. But a seven-year Blue Cross Blue Shield Association analysis of medical claims from more than 1.3 million teens found that only 34 percent of adolescents had received their first dose of the vaccine by their 13th birthday. Further research found that most parents avoid the vaccine because of concerns about side effects, while some believe their preteens are too young to worry about a sexually transmitted virus. The CDC urged parents to have their children inoculated with the vaccine, emphasizing that it triggers a more effective immune response when received at an early age.

2-22-18 Measles cases soar
More than 21,000 people got measles in Europe last year, more than quadruple the number in 2016, and at least 35 of them died. World Health Organization officials blame the spike on parents rejecting or delaying jabs for their children because of the discredited but widespread belief that there is a link between childhood vaccinations and autism. The most affected countries were Italy, Romania, and Ukraine, with about 5,000 cases each. The vaccination rate for young children in Italy is 85 percent; WHO says 95 percent should be immunized to prevent outbreaks. Measles is highly contagious and can cause blindness, encephalitis, and death. Such deaths are “a tragedy we cannot accept,” said WHO official Zsuzsanna Jakab.

2-20-18 WHO warns of soaring rates of measles in Europe
Europe has seen a big surge in measles cases in 2017, which the World Health Organization says is a tragedy after a record low of 5,273 cases in 2016. Cases increased four-fold, with more than 20,000 people affected and 35 deaths. Fifteen European region countries, including the UK, had large outbreaks. Measles cases were highest in Romania, Italy and Ukraine. People shunning vaccination is part of the problem, say experts. Although research published 20 years ago about a possible link between the MMR vaccine and autism has been discredited, the scare it created damaged some people's trust of the vaccine. Measles is a highly infectious viral illness that can be deadly. The MMR vaccine can prevent it. The WHO says there have been declines in overall routine immunisation coverage, as well as consistently low coverage among some marginalised groups and interruptions in vaccine supply or underperforming disease surveillance systems. Dr Zsuzsanna Jakab, from the WHO, said: "Every new person affected by measles in Europe reminds us that unvaccinated children and adults, regardless of where they live, remain at risk of catching the disease and spreading it to others who may not be able to get vaccinated. "This short-term setback cannot deter us from our commitment to be the generation that frees our children from these diseases once and for all." The UK saw 282 cases in 2017, linked to the continuing outbreak in Europe.

2-3-18 Philippines gripped by dengue vaccine fears
Fears over a dengue vaccine in the Philippines have led to a big drop in immunisation rates for preventable diseases, officials have warned. Health Under-Secretary Enrique Domingo said many parents were refusing to get their children vaccinated for polio, chicken pox and tetanus. The fears centre on Dengvaxia, a drug developed by French company Sanofi. Sanofi and local experts say there is no evidence linking the deaths of 14 children to the drug. However, the company had warned last year that the vaccine could make the disease worse in some people not infected before. Dengue fever affects more than 400 million people each year around the world. Dengvaxia is the world's first vaccine against dengue. The mosquito-borne disease is a leading cause of serious illness and death among children in some Asian and Latin American countries, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). "Our programmes are suffering... (people) are scared of all vaccines now", he warned. Mr Domingo added that vaccination rates for some preventable diseases had dropped as much as 60% in recent years - significantly lower that the nationwide target of 85%. Mr Domingo expressed concerns about potential epidemics in the Philippines - a nation of about 100 million people, many of whom are impoverished.

12-12-17 Anti-vax views must not derail France’s compulsory vaccine law
The nation is about to make 11 childhood vaccines mandatory, but unless anti-vax echo chambers are tackled, the law may not fulfil its promise, says Laura Spinney. A new law takes force in France on 1 January to up the number of mandatory childhood vaccines to 11 from three. It has provoked a polemic, but the law is sound. If there is a problem here, it is the neglect by officials of the main drivers of vaccine hesitancy. France isn’t the first nation to get tough, as anti-vaccination views rose widely after the Wakefield scandal in the UK. Most recently, Italy passed a similar law in July, and a number of US states have also adopted a stricter stance on vaccinating children. However, France has the world’s worst anti-vax attitudes: a 2016 survey showed that 41 per cent of people there say vaccines are unsafe. The hope is the law will reverse a 20-year fall in vaccine coverage that has eroded herd immunity and raised the risk of epidemics. To prevent outbreaks of measles, for example, it is recommended that 95 per cent of the population be inoculated. France, stubbornly below that target, saw 24,000 cases of measles between 2008 and 2016. Of those, 1500 got pneumonia, 34 had neurological complications and 10 died. Against this backdrop, the new law makes sense. The additional vaccines – for whooping cough, measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcus and meningococcus C – are currently recommended in France but not obligatory, although the distinction has no clinical or epidemiological grounds. (Webmaster's comment: The idea that people must be free to be unvaccinated and then walk around as disease carriers is ridiculous!)

12-4-17 Focus on liberty and purity may change anti-vax parents’ minds
Why do some parents choose not to vaccinate their children against deadly diseases? The moral ideas of purity and liberty may play a role. Vaccines save lives, so why do some parents prefer not to get their children vaccinated against deadly diseases? It seems the ideas of purity and liberty have a big influence. Avnika Amin at Emory University, Georgia, and her team surveyed more than 1000 adults in the US who had at least one child aged 12 or younger. They assessed the parents’ attitudes towards vaccinations, as well as how much emphasis they put on each of six moral values: authority, fairness, harm, loyalty, purity and liberty. These values are all known to affect judgement and decision-making. “We thought it might be interesting to see if maybe these intuitive values were associated with health decisions,” says Amin. The team found that 73 per cent of parents got low scores when it was assessed whether they have concerns about vaccinations, but 11 per cent showed some hesitancy around vaccinations, and 16 per cent were highly hesitant. Compared with those who weren’t very worried, the medium hesitancy parents were twice as likely to place a high emphasis on purity as a moral value. And high hesitancy parents were twice as likely to emphasise purity and liberty, but half as likely to stress authority, compared with low hesitancy parents. When the team looked at the claims made on anti-vaccination websites, they found that these often appeal to the same moral values. A better understanding of how moral values affect vaccination attitudes could help public health officials show parents that childhood vaccinations are actually in line with certain values, says Amin.(Webmaster's comment: The choice to not vaccinate a child is a choice to kill it!)

10-5-17 Michigan mother jailed for refusing to vaccinate her son
Michigan mother jailed for refusing to vaccinate her son
A mother in the US state of Michigan has been sentenced to seven days in jail after she refused a judge's order to have her son vaccinated. Rebecca Bredow would not let her nine-year-old be immunised after initially agreeing with the father to do so. Her ex-husband has now been awarded temporary primary custody in order to get the boy the jab. Michigan parents are legally allowed to skip or delay their children's vaccinations due to personal beliefs. But Bredow fell foul of the law because she reneged on agreements with her former spouse dating back to November 2016 to have the boy immunised. The mother-of-two was sentenced on Wednesday for contempt of court after flouting a court order last week to have her son vaccinated. She and her ex-husband decided at the time of their child's birth that they would space out and delay jabs for their son. The couple separated in 2008, according to ABC News, but they shared parental custody and the father still wanted the boy vaccinated. (Webmaster's comment: These "personal beliefs" are a clear and present danger to all of us! We do not want to become a nation of sick disease carriers.)

8-25-17 If you’re 35 or younger, your genes can predict whether the flu vaccine will work
If you’re 35 or younger, your genes can predict whether the flu vaccine will work
Researchers still searching for a similar genetic ‘crystal ball’ for older adults. A set of nine genes can signal whether a young adult will develop a strong response to the flu vaccine, a new study finds. A genetic “crystal ball” can predict whether certain people will respond effectively to the flu vaccine. Nine genes are associated with a strong immune response to the flu vaccine in those aged 35 and under, a new study finds. If these genes were highly active before vaccination, an individual would generate a high level of antibodies after vaccination, no matter the flu strain in the vaccine, researchers report online August 25 in Science Immunology. This response can help a person avoid getting the flu. The research team also tried to find a predictive set of genes in people aged 60 and above — a group that includes those more likely to develop serious flu-related complications, such as pneumonia — but failed. Even so, the study is “a step in the right direction,” says Elias Haddad, an immunologist at Drexel University College of Medicine in Philadelphia, who did not participate in the research. “It could have implications in terms of identifying responders versus nonresponders by doing a simple test before a vaccination.” The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that vaccination prevented 5.1 million flu illnesses in the 2015?2016 season. Getting a flu shot is the best way to stay healthy, but “the problem is, we don’t know what makes a successful vaccination,” says Purvesh Khatri, a computational immunologist at Stanford University School of Medicine. “The immune system is very personal.”

7-11-17 Measles 'tragedy' kills 35 across Europe
Measles 'tragedy' kills 35 across Europe
Thirty-five people have died in the past year from measles outbreaks across Europe, the World Health Organization has warned. It described the deaths - which can be prevented with vaccination - as an "unacceptable tragedy". A six-year-old boy in Italy was the latest to die from the infection. More than 3,300 measles cases have been recorded in the country. The most fatalities - 31 - have been in Romania. But there have also been deaths in Germany and Portugal since June 2016. Dr Zsuzsanna Jakab, the WHO regional director for Europe, said: "Every death or disability caused by this vaccine-preventable disease is an unacceptable tragedy. "We are very concerned that although a safe, effective and affordable vaccine is available, measles remains a leading cause of death among children worldwide, and unfortunately Europe is not spared. "I urge all endemic countries to take urgent measures to stop transmission of measles within their borders, and all countries that have already achieved this to keep up their guard and sustain high immunisation coverage." Measles is highly contagious, but vaccinating 95% of the population should prevent it spreading. (Webmaster's comment: Not vaccinating your children can be death sentence for them, and turn your child into a carrier of death for other children.)

7-11-17 First vaccine shows gonorrhoea protection
First vaccine shows gonorrhoea protection
A vaccine has for the first time been shown to protect against the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea, scientists in New Zealand say. There are fears gonorrhoea is becoming untreatable as antibiotics fail. The World Health Organization sees developing a vaccine as vital in stopping the global spread of "super-gonorrhoea". The study of 15,000 young people, published in the Lancet, showed infections were cut by about a third. About 78 million people pick up the sexually transmitted infection each year, and it can cause infertility. But the body does not build up resistance no matter how many times someone is infected. The vaccine, originally developed to stop an outbreak of meningitis B, was given to about a million adolescents in New Zealand between 2004 and 2006. Researchers at the University of Auckland analysed data from sexual health clinics and found gonorrhoea cases had fallen 31% in those vaccinated. The bacterium that causes meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis, is a very close relative of the species that causes gonorrhoea - Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It appears the Men B jab was giving "cross-protection" against gonorrhoea. Dr Helen Petousis-Harris, one of the researchers, said: "This is the first time a vaccine has shown any protection against gonorrhoea. At the moment, the mechanism behind this immune response is unknown, but our findings could inform future vaccine development." Protection seemed to last about two years.

7-10-17 The fight against gonorrhea gets a potential new weapon: a vaccine
The fight against gonorrhea gets a potential new weapon: a vaccine
Shot that curbs meningitis also appears to reduce infections of the sexually transmitted disease. Gonorrhea culprit Neisseria gonorrhoeae (left, in false color) is genetically similar to bacteria that can cause meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis (right, in false color). That close relationship might explain why a vaccine that curbed meningitis in New Zealand also seemed to reduce gonorrhea infections. A vaccine against meningitis has an unexpected side effect: It appears to target gonorrhea, too. If confirmed, the results represent the first instance of a vaccine reducing gonorrhea infections. After receiving a vaccine aimed at a type of meningitis, people were less likely to contract gonorrhea, scientists report online June 10 in the Lancet. That’s a big deal because worldwide each year, an estimated 78 million people contract gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted disease that can cause pelvic inflammation, infertility and throat infections. Gonorrhea’s bacterial culprit, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, has developed resistance to many antibiotics, making treatment much more difficult. Some strains of gonorrhea can now resist all known antibiotics, the Word Health Organization announced July 7. “We are in desperate need for new therapies,” says Christine Johnston, an infectious disease specialist at the University of Washington in Seattle. Attempts to make a gonorrhea vaccine have failed so far. The new results are “the first to show that vaccination against gonorrhea could be possible,” Johnston says.

7-10-17 Meningitis B vaccines may fight the rise of super-gonorrhoea
Meningitis B vaccines may fight the rise of super-gonorrhoea
Antibiotic-resistant gonorrhoea has spread worldwide. Now there’s hope that existing vaccines for meningitis could control gonorrhoea before it becomes unbeatable. A vaccine for meningitis B may stop the spread of antibiotic-resistant super-gonorrhoea. We desperately need a vaccine for the sexually transmitted infection. Last week, the World Health Organization reported that 81 per cent of the 77 countries that have looked for antibiotic-resistant gonorrhoea found strains resistant to azithromycin, the main antibiotic used to fight the disease. Two-thirds of these countries had strains that were resistant to one of two “last resort” antibiotics, cefixime or ceftriaxone. Some cases resist all three of these drugs, and are effectively incurable. This means that even people who are treated for the infection can continue to harbour and spread the bacteria. According to the WHO, only three new drugs to combat gonorrhoea are being tested in people. Even if these work, bacteria could evolve to evade them. A vaccine “will ultimately be the only sustainable way to achieve control” of gonorrhoea, the agency warns. But so far, experimental vaccines have all failed. Remarkably, an existing licensed vaccine may do the trick – a finding David Fisman at the University of Toronto, Canada, describes as “incredible news”.

7-5-17 Cancer vaccines could prime our own bodies to fight tumours
Cancer vaccines could prime our own bodies to fight tumours
Two therapies that trigger the immune system into attacking cancer suggest personalised vaccines can eradicate tumours, but bigger trials are needed. COULD this be the cancer advance we have been waiting for? Cancer vaccines that can trigger a person’s immune system into killing a tumour have long been a goal. Now two slightly different ways of doing this have had promising results. The therapies need to be tested in bigger trials, but the initial results from a small number of people with skin cancer are being heralded as major progress. “This could be huge,” says Cornelis Melief of Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands. Our immune system recognises bacteria and viruses as foreign invaders by the different protein molecules they have on their surface. Because tumour cells have mutations that also make them look different, the immune system sometimes targets them – but the cancers that prove fatal somehow escape this attack. For decades, researchers have been trying to find ways to ramp up the immune response to tumours, usually by injecting people with immune-stimulating drugs and the molecules thought to be present on the surface of the cancer cells. However, so far, nothing has worked well. Part of the problem may be that all cancers are different – each person’s tumour can have hundreds of mutations. Also, prompting the immune system to target one particular molecule can fail because tumours can mutate again and stop being recognised.

6-30-17 Hope for a heart disease vaccine
Hope for a heart disease vaccine
A vaccine against heart ­disease has worked successfully in mice, raising the possibility that scientists will develop a breakthrough technique that could save millions of lives. Researchers in Europe tested the experimental vaccine on mice that were fed an unhealthy, high-fat Western diet, leaving them with high cholesterol and atherosclerosis, fatty buildup in the arteries that increases the risk of heart attack and stroke. The vaccine effectively lowered the total blood cholesterol level of the mice by 53 percent, The Guardian (U.K.) reports. It also reduced arterial damage linked to atherosclerosis by 64 percent and led to a 28 percent drop in markers of blood vessel inflammation. The vaccine works by triggering the production of antibodies that block an enzyme called PCSK9, which prevents the body from clearing LDL, or “bad” cholesterol from the blood. The antibodies produced by the vaccine remained at high levels throughout the entire 18-week study, suggesting the shot has long-term benefits, unlike daily cholesterol-lowering statin drugs, which can cause muscle pain, confusion, digestive issues, and other side effects. The vaccine is currently being tested on 72 people, with results of the Phase I clinical trial expected by the end of the year. “If these findings translate successfully into humans,” says Gunther Staffler, one of the vaccine’s developers, “we could develop a long-lasting therapy that, after the first vaccination, just needs an annual booster.”

6-28-17 Getting a flu ‘shot’ could soon be as easy as sticking on a Band-Aid
Getting a flu ‘shot’ could soon be as easy as sticking on a Band-Aid
Sticky patch with vaccine-infused microneedles prompted immune response. A patch has an array of microneedles that penetrate the skin to deliver a dose of the flu vaccine. DIY vaccination may be on its way. In the first test in adults, a Band-Aid?like patch studded with dissolving microneedles safely and effectively delivered a dose of influenza vaccine. People using the patch had a similar immune response to the flu vaccine as those who received a typical flu shot, researchers report online June 27 in the Lancet. And nearly all of the patch users described the experience as painless. The patch eliminates the need for safe needle disposal, and since it is stable at room temperature for at least a year, it doesn’t require refrigeration, unlike other vaccines. So, it could eventually end up on pharmacy shelves, making vaccination more akin to picking up aspirin than visiting a doctor. Along with possibly improving vaccination rates in the United States, the patch could make delivering vaccines in developing countries easier, too, the researchers say.

6-28-17 Italian father in passionate vaccines plea to Veneto governor
Italian father in passionate vaccines plea to Veneto governor
An Italian father has written a heartfelt letter to a regional governor, urging him not to challenge a new law making vaccination compulsory. Nicola Pomaro's young daughter suffers from severe auto-immune deficiency. In the letter, he says plummeting rates of vaccination in Italy - which the new law seeks to reverse - represent "a mortal danger to my daughter" and thousands of others. He urges Veneto Governor Luca Zaia to abandon his legal challenge. Measles rates have soared in Italy in 2017 as vaccination rates have fallen well below the 95% threshold which scientists say prevent the disease circulating in the general population. Officials have blamed the declining take-up in part on anti-vaccination statements by the populist Five Star Movement, as well as the now-discredited work of Andrew Wakefield, a doctor struck off the UK medical register in 2010. (Webmaster's comment: Unvaccinated children are disease carriers that can kill other people. Vaccination of children for infectious diseases should be mandatory.)

6-9-17 Parents eye Austrian asylum in Italy vaccination dispute
Parents eye Austrian asylum in Italy vaccination dispute
A group of German-speaking parents in northern Italy are so angry about a new requirement to get their children vaccinated that they plan to seek asylum in nearby Austria. The 130 families live in Alto Adige - also known as South Tyrol - a region that was part of Austria before 1919. Last month the Italian government ruled that children must be vaccinated against 12 common illnesses before they can enrol for state-run schools. Cases of measles have risen in Italy. The highly-contagious sickness is fatal in some cases. Some other European countries, including France and Romania, have also seen more measles cases this year. In some parts of Europe, including Italy, vaccination rates have dropped below those recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). (Webmaster's comment: The absolute STUPIDITY of those who don't want to vaccinate their children is beyond belief!)

5-26-17 Germany vaccination: Fines plan as measles cases rise
Germany vaccination: Fines plan as measles cases rise
The German government plans to fine parents up to €2,500 (£2,178; $2,806) if they fail to get medical advice about vaccinating their children. Health Minister Hermann Gröhe said it was necessary to tighten the law because of a measles epidemic. He was speaking to the popular daily Bild. "Continuing deaths from measles cannot leave anyone indifferent," he said. The government wants kindergartens to report any parents who lack proof of having had a medical consultation. Failure to get advice about vaccination could mean expulsion of the child from the daycare centre, under the revised law. It is expected to be adopted next month. A mother of three died of measles in the city of Essen this week. However, Germany is not yet making it an offence to refuse vaccinations - unlike Italy. And the upper house of the German parliament, the Bundesrat, said forcing kindergartens to report some parents to the health authorities might breach data protection laws. (Webmaster's comment: Not getting vaccinated is as irresponsible as drunk driving! Unvaccinated people can kill other people!)

5-12-17 Measles outbreak
Measles outbreak
Minnesota health officials this week blamed anti-vaccine activists for the state’s worst measles outbreak in nearly 30 years, with at least 48 confirmed cases of the virus reported in recent weeks. The vast majority of the measles cases are in unvaccinated Somali-American children 10 years old or younger in the Minneapolis area. Vaccine skepticism began spreading in the Somali-American community there in 2008, after parents noticed a disproportionate number of Somali children receiving special-education services for autism. “At that point, the anti-vaccine groups just really started targeting the community,” said Minnesota Department of Health official Kristen Ehresmann. Those groups later promoted a fraudulent study that proposed a link between the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism. By 2014, vaccination rates among Somali-American children in Minnesota had plummeted to about 40 percent.

5-10-17 Minnesota measles outbreak follows anti-vaccination campaign
Minnesota measles outbreak follows anti-vaccination campaign
Anti-vaccination activists have been targeting Minnesota's Somali-American community, among whom the MMR vaccination rate has halved in a decade. THE state of Minnesota is in the throes of its biggest measles outbreak in 27 years. As of 5 May, 44 cases had been confirmed. Of these, 42 people were unvaccinated, and 38 belonged to the state’s Somali-American community. In 2008, some Somali parents raised concerns over what they perceived to be a high rate of autism in Somali-American children. A subsequent study by the University of Minnesota, the Centers for Disease Control, and the National Institutes of Health found that autism rates among Somalis in Minneapolis were in fact similar to those of the city’s white population. Nevertheless, the concerns of the Somali community prompted anti-vaccination groups to begin targeting Somalis in Minnesota. Former doctor Andrew Wakefield, who lives in Texas, visited Somali communities in Minnesota several times, speaking to parents. Wakefield’s discredited 1998 study suggested a link between autism and the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. Between 2004 and 2014, the MMR immunisation rate among 2-year-old Somali-Americans born in Minnesota dropped from 92 to 42 per cent.

4-28-17 HPV vaccine as cancer prevention is a message that needs to catch on
HPV vaccine as cancer prevention is a message that needs to catch on
New infection stats should be ‘a wake-up call’ to spur lagging vaccination rates. In the United States, HPV vaccination rates lag for girls and boys. The message that the vaccine prevents cancer isn’t getting out there, researchers say. Cancer prevention isn’t the first thing that comes to many parents’ minds when they consider vaccinating their preteens against human papillomavirus, or HPV. And the fact that HPV is transmitted sexually gives the vaccine more baggage than a crowded international flight. But what gets lost in the din is the goal of vaccination, to protect adolescents from infection with HPV types that are responsible for numerous cancers. Newly released estimates show just how prevalent HPV infections are in the United States. In April, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported for 2013-2014 that among adults ages 18 to 59, 25 percent of men and 20 percent of women had genital infections with HPV types that put them at risk of developing cancer. That’s just a snapshot in time. For those who are sexually active, more than 90 percent of men and 80 percent of women can expect to become infected with at least one type of HPV during their lives. About half of those infections will be with a high-risk HPV type.

4-28-17 Measles, mumps come back
Measles, mumps come back
Measles and mumps are vaccine-preventable diseases that once seemed all but eradicated. But now these highly contagious viral infections are enjoying a resurgence in the U.S., where herd immunity—when enough people are immunized to protect the whole population—is on the decline, thanks in part to the anti-vaccination movement. Texas health officials report the number of mumps cases in the state just hit a 22-year high; so far this year, 221 people have been diagnosed with the virus, which can lead to deafness, brain inflammation, and other complications. Mumps can be prevented with the MMR vaccine, which also protects against measles and rubella, but the recommended two doses are only 88 percent effective against the virus. Immunity against mumps also wanes over time. Recurring outbreaks have prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to consider a third routine dose of the vaccine. Safety concerns about the MMR vaccine, however, have also allowed measles, which can cause lung and brain damage, to make a comeback. “Because some parents are withholding their children from vaccination,” infectious disease specialist William Schaffner tells MedicalNewsToday.com (Webmaster's comment: Unvaccinated people and children are ignorant disease carriers.)

4-24-17 Malaria: Kenya, Ghana and Malawi get first vaccine
Malaria: Kenya, Ghana and Malawi get first vaccine
The world's first vaccine against malaria will be introduced in three countries - Ghana, Kenya and Malawi - starting in 2018. The RTS,S vaccine trains the immune system to attack the malaria parasite, which is spread by mosquito bites. The World Health Organization (WHO) said the jab had the potential to save tens of thousands of lives. But it is not yet clear if it will be feasible to use in the poorest parts of the world. The vaccine needs to be given four times - once a month for three months and then a fourth dose 18 months later. This has been achieved in tightly controlled and well-funded clinical trials, but it is not yet clear if it can be done in the "real-world" where access to health care is limited. It is why the WHO is running pilots in three countries to see if a full malaria vaccine programme could be started. It will also continue to assess the safety and effectiveness of the vaccination. (Webmaster's comment: Not getting vaccinated makes you a disease carrier and causes stupidity!)

4-21-17 Chlamydia vaccine for koalas slows spread of deadly disease
Chlamydia vaccine for koalas slows spread of deadly disease
First results from trials of single-jab vaccine offer hope that the sexually transmitted disease devastating Australia’s koala population can be halted. A single-jab vaccine could halt the chlamydia epidemic wiping out Australia’s koalas. It may even pave the way for a human chlamydia vaccine. In trials, the new vaccine has been shown to slow the rate of new infections and treat early-stage disease. A third of Australia’s koalas have been lost over the last two decades, largely due to the spread of chlamydia, which now affects between 50 and 100 per cent of wild populations. The sexually transmitted disease causes painful urinary tract inflammation, infertility and blindness. Chlamydia in koalas is caused by Chlamydia pecorum, a bacterium that may have spread from livestock introduced from Europe. A similar bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, causes chlamydia in humans. Antibiotics can be used to treat chlamydia in koalas, but they only work in early-stage disease, do not prevent re-infection, and they must be administered daily for at least 30 days in captivity. Moreover, some infected koalas remain asymptomatic and are overlooked for treatment while they continue to spread the disease. (Webmaster's comment: Vaccines work on animals too, but they don't work for ignorant humans that don't get vaccinated.)

3-28-17 Measles outbreak across Europe
Measles outbreak across Europe
Measles is spreading across Europe wherever immunisation coverage has dropped, the World Health Organization is warning. The largest outbreaks are being seen in Italy and Romania. In the first month of this year, Italy reported more than 200 cases. Romania has reported more than 3,400 cases and 17 deaths since January 2016. Measles is highly contagious. Travel patterns mean no person or country is beyond its reach, says the WHO. For good protection, it's recommended that at least 95% of the population is vaccinated against the disease. But many countries are struggling to achieve that. Most of the measles cases have been found in countries where immunisation has dipped below this threshold and the infection is endemic - France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Romania, Switzerland and Ukraine.

3-15-17 See how bacterial blood infections in young kids plummeted after vaccines
See how bacterial blood infections in young kids plummeted after vaccines
Newcomer pneumococcal vaccines have led to huge reductions in blood infections among young children. To celebrate birthdays, my 2- and 4-year-old party animals got vaccinated. Measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox, diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough for the older one (thankfully combined into just two shots), and hepatitis A for the younger. Funnily enough, there were no tears. Just before the shots, we were talking about the tiny bits of harmless germs that would now be inside their bodies, teaching their immune systems how to fight off the harmful germs and keep their bodies healthy. I suspect my girls got caught up in the excitement and forgot to be scared. As I watched the vaccine needles go in, I was grateful for these medical marvels that clearly save lives. Yet the topic has become fraught for worried parents who want to keep their kids healthy. Celebrities, politicians and even some pediatricians argue that children today get too many vaccines too quickly, with potentially dangerous additives. Those fears have led to reductions in the number of kids who are vaccinated, and along with it, a resurgence of measles and other diseases that were previously kept in check. Doctors and scientists try to reduce those fears with good, hard data that show vaccines are absolutely some of the safest and most important tools we have to keep children healthy. A study published online March 10 in Pediatrics shows a particularly compelling piece of data on the impact of vaccines.

3-15-17 Australia to ban unvaccinated children from preschool
Australia to ban unvaccinated children from preschool
The government wants 95 per cent of Australian children vaccinated – a level that would stop infectious diseases spreading and protect those who can’t be vaccinated. No-jab, no play. So says the Australian Prime Minister, Malcolm Turnbull, who has announced that unvaccinated children will be barred from attending preschools and daycare centres. Currently, 93 per cent of Australian children receive the standard childhood vaccinations, including those for measles, mumps and rubella, but the government wants to lift this to 95 per cent. This is the level required to stop the spread of infectious disease and to protect children who are too young to be immunised or cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons. Childcare subsidies have been unavailable to the families of unvaccinated children since January 2016, and a version of the new “no jab, no play” policy is already in place in Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. Other states and territories only exclude unvaccinated children from preschools during infectious disease outbreaks. The proposed policy is based on Victoria’s model, which is the strictest. It requires all children attending childcare to be fully immunised, unless they have a medical exemption, such as a vaccine allergy.

3-13-17 Australia considers childcare ban on unvaccinated children
Australia considers childcare ban on unvaccinated children
Unvaccinated children would be banned from childcare centres and preschools under an Australian government plan. Some Australian states already have "no jab, no play" laws, but PM Malcolm Turnbull is calling for nationwide legislation. Health groups have supported the push, arguing parents and the community have an obligation to protect children. An Australian Child Health Poll survey of nearly 2,000 parents showed 5% of children were not fully vaccinated. Mr Turnbull said more needed to be done, citing the case of a baby who died from whooping cough. "This is not a theoretical exercise - this is life and death," Mr Turnbull said. "If a parent says, 'I'm not going to vaccinate my child,' they are not simply putting their child at risk, they are putting everybody else's children at risk too." Vaccinating children is not a legal requirement in Australia, but failing to do so makes parents ineligible for childcare rebates. (Webmaster's comment: Isolate unvaccinated children and their families away from the rest of us so they only infect themselves!)

11-3-16 50 years later, vaccines have eliminated some diseases
50 years later, vaccines have eliminated some diseases
Vaccines provide a crucial line of defense against some diseases such as measles and rubella, but other illnesses have frustrated development efforts. More vaccines promised — “The decline of poliomyelitis among more than 350 million people of the world … (offers) a promise of vaccines that will soon be used against other diseases considered hopeless or untreatable until recently. Vaccines against some of the many viruses causing the common cold, as well as those causing rubella, mumps and other diseases are on the way.” — Science News, November 19, 1966. In 1971, vaccines against mumps and rubella were combined with the measles vaccine into one MMR shot. All three diseases are now very rare in the United States. But persistent pockets of lower vaccination rates (spurred in part by the repeatedly debunked belief that vaccines cause autism) have allowed sporadic outbreaks of all three illnesses. A vaccine against the common cold has not yet materialized. Creating one vaccine that protects against the hundred or so strains of rhinoviruses that can cause colds is not easy. But some scientists are giving it a shot, along with vaccines against HIV, Ebola and Zika.

10-11-16 There's a big change coming to the flu vaccine
There's a big change coming to the flu vaccine
r the past eight years, flu shots around the world have contained a virus that was retrieved from a sick person in California in the spring of 2009, in the earliest days of the H1N1 — or swine flu — pandemic. No more. Recently, the World Health Organization recommended that flu vaccine manufacturers swap out the component that is based on that virus with an updated version. It is uncommon for a flu virus to remain in the vaccine for such an extended period as the current one. "A/California had a good run," Dr. Danuta Skowronski, an influenza epidemiologist at the British Columbia Center for Disease Control in Vancouver, said of the virus that is being discarded. The change, which will first come into effect in the flu shots for the 2017 Southern Hemisphere winter, is good news. It's an indication that advances in flu science — particularly relating to monitoring small changes in viruses and figuring out how that evolution dictates who and how many people might get sick in a flu season — may be helping scientists fine-tune flu-fighting strategy.

9-27-16 Measles has been eliminated in the Americas, WHO says
Measles has been eliminated in the Americas, WHO says
The highly infectious disease, which is marked by flat red spots that can cover the body, has been eliminated from the Americas after decades of wide-spread VACCINATION. A half-century after scientists first introduced a vaccine to combat measles, the disease has been eliminated from a swath of the globe stretching from Canada to Chile — and all the countries in between. The region is the first in the world to have eliminated the viral disease, the Pan American Health Organization and World Health Organization announced September 27. That’s different from eradication, which means an infectious disease has been scrubbed out permanently, worldwide. So far, only smallpox has been eradicated. Though measles outbreaks still crop up occasionally in the Americas (this year 54 people have contracted the disease in the United States), they stem from travelers bringing the virus in from other parts of the world. A home-grown outbreak in the Americas hasn’t occurred since a 2002 outbreak in Venezuela.

9-9-16 Fear of vaccine safety is higher in Europe than in the US
Fear of vaccine safety is higher in Europe than in the US
A survey across 67 countries has found that Europe is the world’s most sceptical region when it comes to vaccines, especially people in France. Europe is the world’s most vaccine-sceptic region. That’s according to a study that has surveyed 66,000 people living in 67 countries about their views on the importance and safety of vaccines. People in France showed the least confidence – 41 per cent of those surveyed said they disagreed that vaccines are safe. The global average was 12 per cent. France was followed by Bosnia and Herzegovina, where 36 per cent doubted the safety of vaccines. Russia and Mongolia came next, with 28 per cent and 27 per cent, respectively. Greece, Japan and the Ukraine all recorded a 25 per cent lack of confidence. In the US, 14 per cent of the 1,000 people surveyed disagreed that vaccines are safe, while 86 per cent agree they are important.

9-2-16 Pediatricians push back against anti-vax parents
Pediatricians push back against anti-vax parents
It is “acceptable” for doctors to drop patients who refuse vaccinations on nonmedical grounds, the American Academy of Pediatrics announced in a new policy statement this week. The advice was issued after a survey revealed that 87 percent of pediatricians have dealt with parents who did not want their children to be vaccinated—up from 75 percent a decade ago. Many parents who refuse to have their kids vaccinated believe immunizations can cause autism, a theory that has been thoroughly debunked. Other parents believe vaccines are an unnecessary discomfort for their children. The academy said that doctors should try to persuade hesitant families of the benefits of vaccines, and only exclude them from a practice as a last resort.

9-1-16 Dog vaccine offers hope in China’s fight against rabies
Dog vaccine offers hope in China’s fight against rabies
Scientists in China have found that a rabies vaccine usually given to dogs can also protect livestock. Rabies in domestic cattle and camels, infected by wild dog and fox bites, has been on the rise in north-west China. Because there is no oral vaccine for wild animals in China, it is impossible to prevent this type of spread. A vaccine for large domestic animals is what is needed, the researchers say, but the canine vaccine could provide a stop-gap measure.

8-13-16 What the deadly 1960s rubella outbreak should teach us about the Zika virus
What the deadly 1960s rubella outbreak should teach us about the Zika virus
As the Zika virus continues to sweep through Latin America and begins what appears to be a steady march into the United States, the hunt is on for a vaccine against it. In addition to posing scientific and medical challenges, the development of a Zika vaccine raises social and ethical issues with a twist because of what this vaccine will do and who it is aimed at. In some ways it will be like a vaccine developed almost 50 years ago to fight rubella, a virus that also attacked developing babies. Infection with the Zika virus generally isn't a big deal. Most people don't develop any symptoms. Those who do may have a low-grade fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, muscle or joint pain, or fatigue that disappears within a week. A small number of people infected with the Zika virus develop Guillain-Barré syndrome, in which the immune system attacks nerves, causing pain or partial paralysis. Among women who are pregnant, though, infection with the Zika virus can have devastating consequences for their developing babies. These range from microcephaly, a condition characterized by a small head and impaired brain development, to seizures, vision and hearing loss, and intellectual disability. There are strong parallels between Zika and rubella, also known as German measles. An outbreak of rubella rocked the United States in the winter of 1964 and spring of 1965. More than 12 million people were infected with rubella. Like Zika, rubella is generally a minor illness. It causes a distinctive red rash, low fever, and symptoms resembling a bad cold that usually last a few days. For developing babies, however, infection can be a major catastrophe, causing a variety of birth defects, including blindness, deafness, heart damage, cataracts, internal organ damage, and intellectual disability. During that rubella outbreak, more than 20,000 babies were born with congenital rubella syndrome. Without a vaccine, there was nothing their mothers could have done to prevent it. A vaccine against rubella became available in 1969. Since then, this disease has been eradicated in the United States. (Webmaster's comment: We need a vaccine NOW!)

8-12-16 Polio back in Nigeria two years after being wiped out in Africa
Polio back in Nigeria two years after being wiped out in Africa
Just as Africa was due to celebrate the anniversary of its last polio infections, two new cases have set back global efforts to eradicate the virus by 2019. Just as Africa was due to celebrate two polio-free years, it has been announced that the virus has paralysed two children in Nigeria’s Borno state. The decline of polio in Africa is thanks to a huge public health effort. When these two new cases came to light, the continent had been on track to be declared officially polio free in just one year’s time. “The overriding priority now is to rapidly immunise all children around the affected area and ensure no other children succumb,” said Matshidiso Moeti, the World Health Organization’s regional director for Africa. Nigeria previously had a particularly large incidence of polio. As recently as 2012, the country accounted for more than half of all cases globally. But a concerted campaign of immunisation meant that the country was able last month to celebrate two years without a new case. (Webmaster's comment: I wonder what all those anti-vaccination Twits have to say about the polio vaccine. Maybe they'd like to go back to crippled children by the many thousands every year in the United States.)

4-17-16 Vaccine switched in 'milestone' towards ending polio
Vaccine switched in 'milestone' towards ending polio
More than 150 countries have begun switching to a different polio vaccine - an important milestone towards polio eradication, health campaigners say. The new vaccine will target the two remaining strains of the virus under a switchover 18 months in the planning. There were just 74 cases of the paralysing disease in 2015 and there have been 10 so far this year. (Webmaster's comment: Thanks to polio vaccine this disease has almost been eradicated. No thanks to vaccine deniers other diseases have not.)

4-1-16 Pulling ‘Vaxxed’ still doesn’t retract vaccine misconceptions
Pulling ‘Vaxxed’ still doesn’t retract vaccine misconceptions
The Tribeca Film Festival and its cofounder Robert De Niro came under intense fire last week for their decision to screen Vaxxed: From Cover-Up to Catastrophe, a film directed by disgraced gastroenterologist Andrew Wakefield. If Wakefield’s name doesn’t ring a bell, his legacy is surely familiar: his fraudulent 1998 study claiming to find a link between autism and the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine kicked off a major public health scare that’s had lasting, devastating consequences. While the purported link between autism and vaccines has been repeatedly debunked, the link lives on within the antivaccination movement. As a result of the backlash against vaccines, cases of the virtually eliminated measles are on the rise, as are outbreaks of other vaccine-preventable diseases.

4-1-16 Robert De Niro pulled the anti-vaccination documentary Vaxxed
Robert De Niro pulled the anti-vaccination documentary Vaxxed
Amid a storm of controversy, Robert De Niro pulled the anti-vaccination documentary Vaxxed: From Cover-Up to Catastrophe from his Tribeca Film Festival. The film accuses the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of covering up an alleged—and repeatedly debunked—link between child vaccinations and rising autism rates. De Niro, who has an autistic child, had defended screening the film “to provide an opportunity for conversation around an issue that is deeply personal to me and my family.” But he said, after reviewing the film, “We do not believe it contributes to or furthers the discussion I had hoped for.” The film was harshly criticized by doctors and scientists for promoting the myth that autism is caused by vaccination, which has driven down vaccination rates to the point where diseases like measles and whooping cough are making a comeback.

3-27-16 Vaxxed: Tribeca festival withdraws MMR film
Vaxxed: Tribeca festival withdraws MMR film
New York's Tribeca Film Festival will not show Vaxxed, a controversial film about the MMR vaccine, its founder Robert De Niro says. As recently as Friday, Mr De Niro stood by his decision to include the film by anti-vaccination activist Andrew Wakefield in next month's festival. The link the film makes between the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine and autism has been widely discredited. "We have concerns with certain things in this film," said Mr De Niro. Mr De Niro, who has a child with autism, said he had hoped the film would provide the opportunity for discussion of the issue. But after reviewing the film with festival organisers and scientists, he said: "We do not believe it contributes to or furthers the discussion I had hoped for." (Webmaster's comment: People have every right to reject promoting the blatant lies of the anti-vaccination advocates. There has only been a single published scientific article in support of the vaccine-autism link and that article was retracted by the publisher many years ago. And the author of the article was found guilty of fraud 15 years ago!)

2-22-16 Vaccine halves cancer-causing HPV infections in US teen girls
Vaccine halves cancer-causing HPV infections in US teen girls
The number of people infected with the virus, which causes most cases of cervical cancer, has fallen dramatically since the vaccine's introduction. Vaccination against human papilloma virus has more than halved the number of HPV infections in the US – the leading cause of cervical cancer – despite its relatively low uptake in the country. The growing body of evidence that HPV vaccination works may convince more countries to give the vaccine to teenage boys, as HPV also causes cancers of the mouth, throat and anus, as well as genital warts. “It supports the case to strive for as much coverage as possible,” says Johannes Bogaards of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment at Bilthoven in the Netherlands, who wasn’t involved in the latest study. The vaccine, called Gardasil, was designed to prevent cervical cancer. It works against four strains of HPV, which cause almost all cases of this type of cancer. (Webmaster's comment: So much for vaccine denials.)

Vaccines
Calling The Shots

Sioux Falls Scientists endorse Vaccines for showing us that
vaccines have saved millions are are not a cause of autism.