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Sioux Falls Scientists endorse Mega Disasters: Mega Tsunami
for describing the mega tsunami disaster that wiped early
civilizations off the shores of the Mediterranean.

Mega Disasters: Mega Tsunami

Mega Disasters: Mega Tsunami (2008) - 50 minutes
Mega Disasters: Mega Tsunami at Amazon.com

Eight thousand years before the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, waves taller than the Statue of Liberty ravaged the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, decimating ancient villages and killing untold numbers of people.

In this stunning program from MEGA DISASTERS, watch as experts piece together evidence from this incredible storm, and reveal the face of the ancient tsunami for the first time. For more than eight millennia, the trigger of the mega tsunami remained a mystery; but, in 1996, a group of Italian scientists discovered an incredible clue in the most unlikely of places: two miles up, on the summit of Mt. Etna. Now, using all of their expertise, the scientists set out to prove their theory and shed light on the severity of the tsunami's destruction. Through their work, the team also examines whether a tsunami of this magnitude could happen again and how it would affect people the world over.

Featuring expert interviews, staggering footage from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, and amazing 3-D computer-generated animation, MEGA TSUNAMI recreates the massive waves that may have changed the course of history.

8-11-17 Mystery of missing tsunamis explained by geological model
Mystery of missing tsunamis explained by geological model
Massive debris flows below the waves can trigger devastating tsunamis, but sometimes they generate the merest ripple – now we know why. How is it that one underwater landslide leads to a devastating tsunami, while another of similar size barely causes a ripple? The answer may lie in the way the sediments slide. Cascading landslides are the ones to watch, step by step slippage is usually more benign. Just over 8000 years ago one of the largest underwater landslides on record occurred off the coast of Norway. Dubbed the Storegga slide, it covered an area of sea floor larger than Scotland, and generated a massive tsunami in the north Atlantic Ocean. That left debris perched 20 metres above sea level on the Shetland islands, and possibly caused a Stone-age population collapse in the coastal region of what is now the north-east UK. Curiously, though, the Trænadjupet slide, another giant underwater landslide in the same area 4500 years ago failed to generate a destructive wave. To find out why the two landslides led to such different outcomes, Finn Løvholt from the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Oslo, and his colleagues, produced computer models of two types of underwater landslides and compared their tsunami-generating potential. The first model, known as a retrogressive slide, starts at the bottom of the slope and releases its energy block by block, in a staggered series of smaller landslides. The second model, known as the debris slide, begins as a retrogressive slide, but then spreads much more quickly up the slope, leading to multiple blocks of sediment failing in one go.

6-15-17 Magma stored under volcanoes is mostly solid
Magma stored under volcanoes is mostly solid
Analysis of crystals found in lava suggests shift to molten goo occurs close to eruption. Seven hundred years ago, a New Zealand volcano spewed out seven zircon crystals that are providing a peek at the state of magma in underground chambers.Most of a volcano’s magma probably isn’t the oozing, red-hot molten goo often imagined. Analyses of zircon crystals, spewed from a volcanic eruption in New Zealand, show that the crystals spent the vast majority of their time underground in solid, not liquid, magma, researchers report in the June 16 Science. The results suggest the magma melted shortly before the volcano erupted. This finding helps confirm geologists’ emerging picture of magma reservoirs as mostly solid masses, says geologist John Pallister of the U.S. Geological Survey in Vancouver, Wash., who was not involved in the study. And it could help scientists more accurately forecast when volcanoes are poised to erupt.

5-25-17 Deep heat may have spawned one of the world’s deadliest tsunamis
Deep heat may have spawned one of the world’s deadliest tsunamis
Geology suggests why Indonesia’s 2004 quake was surprisingly strong. The quake that ruptured off the coast of Sumatra on December 26, 2004, was one of the deadliest earthquakes in history, mostly because it set off an enormous tsunami that destroyed nearby island communities. Chemical transformations in minerals deep beneath the seafloor could explain why Indonesia’s 2004 mega-earthquake was unexpectedly destructive, researchers report in the May 26 Science. The magnitude 9.2 quake and the tsunami that it triggered killed more than 250,000 people, flattened villages, and swept homes out to sea across Southeast Asia. It was one of the deadliest tsunamis in recorded history. “It raised a whole bunch of questions, because that wasn't a place in the world where we thought a magnitude 9 earthquake would occur,” says study coauthor Brandon Dugan, a geophysicist at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden. The thick but stable layer of sediment where tectonic plates meet off the coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra should have limited the power of an earthquake, seismologists had predicted. But instead, this quake was the third-strongest on record worldwide.

5-12-17 Terrifying 20m-tall 'rogue waves' are actutally real
Terrifying 20m-tall 'rogue waves' are actutally real
For centuries sailors told stories of enormous waves tens of metres tall. They were dismissed as tall tales, but in fact they are alarmingly common. TEN-storey high, near-vertical walls of frothing water. Smashed portholes and flooded cabins on the upper decks. Thirty-metre behemoths that rise up from nowhere to throw ships about like corks, only to slip back beneath the depths moments later. Evocative descriptions of abnormally large "rogue waves" that appear out of the blue have been shared among sailors for centuries. With little or no hard evidence, and the size of the waves often growing with each telling, there is little surprise that scientists long dismissed them as tall tales. Until around half a century ago, this scepticism chimed with the scientific evidence. According to scientists' best understanding of how waves are generated, a 30m wave might be expected once every 30,000 years. Rogue waves could safely be classified alongside mermaids and sea monsters. However, we now know that they are no maritime myths.

12-14-16 'Smart boulders' record huge underwater avalanche
'Smart boulders' record huge underwater avalanche
A submersible feeds images back to the surface of a "smart boulder" on the seafloor. Scientists have had a remarkable close-up encounter with a gigantic underwater avalanche. It is the first time researchers have had instruments in place to monitor so large a flow of sediment as it careered down-slope. The event occurred in Monterey Canyon off the coast of California in January. The mass of sand and rock kept moving for more than 50km, as it slipped from a point less than 300m below the sea surface to a depth of over 1,800m. Speeds during the descent reached over 8m per second. An international team running the Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE) is now sitting on a wealth of data. "These flows, called turbidity currents, are some of the most powerful flows on Earth," said Dan Parsons, a professor of process sedimentology, at the University of Hull, UK. "Rivers are the only other mechanism that transports comparable volumes of sediment across the globe. However, although we have hundreds of thousands of measurements from rivers, we only have a small handful of measurements from turbidity currents – often for short periods of time and at only one position within a system."

12-14-16 Atlantic wave biggest ever recorded by buoy
Atlantic wave biggest ever recorded by buoy
The wave was captured not by man, but by a buoy. The highest-ever wave detected by a buoy has been recorded in the North Atlantic ocean. The 19-metre (62.3ft) wave happened between Iceland and the United Kingdom, off the Outer Hebrides, the World Meteorological Organization said. It was created in the aftermath of a very strong cold front with 43.8 knot (50.4mph) winds on 4 February 2013.

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Mega Disasters: Mega Tsunami

Sioux Falls Scientists endorse Mega Disasters: Mega Tsunami
for describing the mega tsunami disaster that wiped early
civilizations off the shores of the Mediterranean.